‘Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana [Can be asked in IBPS AFO, NABARD, SRF]

‘Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana [AgriCurrentAffairs]
‘Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana – A scheme to bring about Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India.
The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister, has given its approval for implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) - A scheme to bring about Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India under two components namely, Central Sector Scheme (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) at a total estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crore comprising of (i) Central share of Rs. 9,407 crore, (ii) State share of Rs. 4,880 crore and (iii) Beneficiaries' share of Rs. 5,763 crore.   https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/
The Scheme will be implemented during a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25.
The PMMSY components/activities under the following three broad heads:
a) Enhancement of Production and Productivity
b) Infrastructure and Post-Harvest Management       
c) Fisheries Management and Regulatory Framework


  1. Address the critical gaps in the fisheries sector and realize its potential.
  2. Augmenting fish production and productivity at a sustained average annual growth rate of about 9% to achieve a target of 22 million metric tons by 2024-25 through sustainable and responsible fishing practices.
  3. Improving availability of certified quality fish seed and feed, traceability in fish and including effective aquatic health management. https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/
  4. Creation of critical infrastructure including modernisation and strengthening of value chain.
  5. Creation of direct gainful employment opportunities to about 15 lakh fishers, fish farmers, fish workers, fish vendors and other rural/urban populations in fishing and allied activities and about thrice this number as indirect employment opportunities including enhancement of their incomes.
  6. Boost to investments in fisheries sector and increase of competitiveness of fish and fisheries products.
  7. Doubling   of fishers, fish farmers and fish workers incomes by 2024
  8. Social, physical and economic security for fishers and fish workers.
[Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
[Main Source: PIB]

Transpiration & its types, mechanism [Asked in JRF SRF NET ARS]


  • Transpiration is the evaporation of water from cell surfaces and its loss through the anatomical structures of the plant (stomata, lenticels and cuticles). 
  • The total water loss by transpiration may be very great. 
  • The daily water loss of large, well watered tropical tress may run as high as 500 litres. 
  • A corn plant may loose 3 to 4 litres of water per day. [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
  • Whereas a tree sized desert cactus may loose water less than 25 ml per day. 
  • In general about 99 per cent of water absorbed by a plant during the growth is lost in transpiration (necessary evil). [BHU 2017] 
  • Water lost by a growing field of corn would be about 8-11 inches of water per acre during the growing season. 
  • Transpiration is mostly taking place through the stomata
  • Although large quantities of water are absorbed by plant from the soil, only a small amount is utilized. The excess of water is lost from the aerial parts of plants in the form of water vapour and this process is called as transpiration. [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
  • Nearly >95 per cent of water absorbed by the plants is lost through transpiration and only <5 per cent is utilized by the plant. 

Types of transpiration
  • In general, there are 3 types of transpiration i.e. stomatal, cuticular and lenticular transpirations.
  • 1. Stomatal transpiration
    • Most of the transpiration takes place through stomata.
    • Stomata are usually confined in more numbers on the lower sides of the leaves.
    • In most of the monocots, they are equally distributed on both sides of leaves, while in aquatic plants, stomata are present on the upper surface of the floating leaves.
    • Stomatal transpiration accounts for 80-90 per cent of the total water loss from the plants. [JRF 2016] [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
  • 2. Cuticular transpiration
    • The loss of water through the impervious cuticle is called as cuticular transpiration.
    • It may contribute a maximum of about 10 ten per cent of the total transpiration.
  • 3. Lenticular transpiration
    • The loss of water through the lenticels of woody stems is called as lenticular transpiration.
    • It accounts for about 0.1 per cent of the total transpirational loss of water.
The mechanism of stomatal transpiration can be studied in 3 steps.
  • 1. Osmotic diffusion of water in the leaf, from xylem to intercellular space above the stomata through the mesophyll cells. [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
  • 2. Opening and closing of stomata (stomatal movement).
  • 3. Simple diffusion of water vapour from intercellular spaces to outer atmosphere

कम्पोजिट फिश कल्चर: पॉन्ड्स लिमिंग [आईबीपीएस एएफओ 2017, 2018 में पूछा गया]

मत्स्य तालाबों में सीमित करना:
मिट्टी / टैंक जो प्रकृति में अम्लीय हैं, क्षारीय तालाबों की तुलना में कम उत्पादक हैं। चूने का उपयोग पीएच को वांछित स्तर पर लाने के लिए किया जाता है। इसके अलावा चूने में भी निम्नलिखित प्रभाव होते हैं -
ए) पीएच को बढ़ाता है।
बी) बफर के रूप में कार्य करता है और पीएच के उतार-चढ़ाव से बचा जाता है।
c) यह परजीवी के लिए मिट्टी के प्रतिरोध को बढ़ाता है।
d) इसका विषाक्त प्रभाव परजीवियों को मारता है; और
ई) यह कार्बनिक अपघटन को तेज करता है। (स्रोत:  https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/ )
चूने की सामान्य खुराक 200 से 250 किलोग्राम / हेक्टेयर तक होती है। हालांकि, वास्तविक
खुराक की गणना मिट्टी और पानी के पीएच के आधार पर निम्नानुसार की जानी चाहिए:

नया तालाब होने की स्थिति में तालाब को बारिश के पानी या अन्य स्रोतों से पानी भरना पड़ता है।
 (स्रोत:  https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/ )

Basics of Soil Science [ JRF, SRF, NET, ARS, BHU Pre PG]

Basics of Soil Science
About the Soil
  • The soil is a natural resource.
  • “the soil is the link between the rock core of the earth and the living things on its surface” Roy W. Simonson
  • India can be called a land of paradoxes because of the large variety of soils.
  • The Soil - Definition
  • Sail is transformation product of mineral and organic substances on the earth's surface  [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
  • Sail is growing medium for higher plants and basis of life for higher plants and basis of life for animals and mankind.  [JRF SOIL 2015]
  • Soil is four-dimensional as a space-time system.
  • For a Pedologist, Soil is a natural body [BHU PrePG 2017]
  • Soil is a result of complex biogeochemical and physical processes
  • Soil is capable of supporting life
  • Soil can be mapped at an appropriate scale.
  • Engineers define soil as the unconsolidated material above the bedrock. 
  • Geologists define soil as the natural medium for the growth of plants
  • Acronym SOIL is expanded to Soul Of Infinite Life.  [JRF SOIL 2019]
  • Soil microbiologists rightly define soil as a polis (society or community) that is governed by soil organisms  [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]
  • Fungi are the "governing" organisms in forest soils
  • Other microbes are the "governors" or "soil managers" in other ecosystems. 
  • Acc. to FAO ``Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) that are composed of weathered minerals, organic matter, air and water. It is a natural medium for the growth of plants".
  • Soil is a natural body formed under various factors as result of natural processes
  • Soil as a porous system consists of 3 different phases solid, liquid and gases.
  • An ideal soil has a ratio of 2:1:1 for solid: liquid: gas on volume basis  [BHU PrePG 2018]
  • Soil as a living body since it helps survival of numerous micro- and macro-organisms through physical and nutritional support. 
  • Mineral soils hardly contain 1-2% organic matter. [JRF SOIL 2017]
  • Most of the soil minerals are inorganic aluminum-silicates. 
  • [Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/]

Composite Fish Culture: Liming in Ponds [Asked in IBPS AFO 2017, 2018]

Liming in Fishery Ponds :
The soils/ tanks which are acidic in nature are less productive than alkaline ponds. Lime is used to bring the pH to the desired level. In addition lime also has the following effects -
a) Increases the pH.
b) Acts as buffer and avoids fluctuations of pH.
c) It increases the resistance of soil to parasites.
d) Its toxic effect kills the parasites; and
e) It hastens organic decomposition. (Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/)
The normal doses of the lime desired ranges from 200 to 250 Kg/ha. However, the actual
dose has to be calculated based on pH of the soil and water as follows :

The pond is required to be filled with rain water or water from other sources after liming in case it is a new pond.
 (Source: https://www.agricoachingdelhi.in/)