Basics of Soil Science [ JRF, SRF, NET, ARS, BHU Pre PG]

Basics of Soil Science
About the Soil
  • The soil is a natural resource.
  • “the soil is the link between the rock core of the earth and the living things on its surface” Roy W. Simonson
  • India can be called a land of paradoxes because of the large variety of soils.
  • The Soil - Definition
  • Sail is transformation product of mineral and organic substances on the earth's surface  [Source:]
  • Sail is growing medium for higher plants and basis of life for higher plants and basis of life for animals and mankind.  [JRF SOIL 2015]
  • Soil is four-dimensional as a space-time system.
  • For a Pedologist, Soil is a natural body [BHU PrePG 2017]
  • Soil is a result of complex biogeochemical and physical processes
  • Soil is capable of supporting life
  • Soil can be mapped at an appropriate scale.
  • Engineers define soil as the unconsolidated material above the bedrock. 
  • Geologists define soil as the natural medium for the growth of plants
  • Acronym SOIL is expanded to Soul Of Infinite Life.  [JRF SOIL 2019]
  • Soil microbiologists rightly define soil as a polis (society or community) that is governed by soil organisms  [Source:]
  • Fungi are the "governing" organisms in forest soils
  • Other microbes are the "governors" or "soil managers" in other ecosystems. 
  • Acc. to FAO ``Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) that are composed of weathered minerals, organic matter, air and water. It is a natural medium for the growth of plants".
  • Soil is a natural body formed under various factors as result of natural processes
  • Soil as a porous system consists of 3 different phases solid, liquid and gases.
  • An ideal soil has a ratio of 2:1:1 for solid: liquid: gas on volume basis  [BHU PrePG 2018]
  • Soil as a living body since it helps survival of numerous micro- and macro-organisms through physical and nutritional support. 
  • Mineral soils hardly contain 1-2% organic matter. [JRF SOIL 2017]
  • Most of the soil minerals are inorganic aluminum-silicates. 
  • [Source:]